structure of nouns in xhosa

There are no definite or indefinite articles. After learning/reading quite a bit of isiXhosa, you will get used to the different prefixes and be able to naturally sort them into their classes. Welsh in 1936 and 1944, a useful but inadequate grammar. The Zulu noun consists of two essential parts, the prefix and the stem. The research on isiXhosa speech development has focused primarily on segmental aspects of acquisition (i.e. ( Log Out /  Mpondo (Pondo), Xesibe, Bomwana, Gaika, Gcaleka, Thembu, Mpondomise, Ndlambe (Ethnologue). Clicks After: emva. / grammar translation in English-Xhosa dictionary. grammar translation in English-Xhosa dictionary. These nouns are grouped according to their prefixes (the first part that is fixed to the noun stem). If you have a root word and want to alter it according to the context it will be used in, you must choose a suitable prefix. Ngqika is considered to be the standard variety. As a result of this contact, the Xhosa people borrowed some Khoisan words along with their pronunciation, for instance, the click sounds of the Khoisan languages. Ever since Xhosa and Zulu were reduced to a written form in the early 19th century, Xhosa and Zulu writers have produced various works of fiction, ranging from poetry to novels. Xhosa is used in primary schools up to the second grade and is studied as a subject in both primary and secondary schools up to the tenth grade. category- definitely non-personal – some anatomical terms/names of trees/some nouns derived from verbs/misc. In the case of noun complementation or appositive clauses with ukuba in Xhosa which are selected by verbs, four arguments have been presented to arrive at a structure. It is also spoken in Botswana and Lesotho. Xhosa, Zulu, Ndelebele and Swati share most of their basic vocabulary as well as grammar. (umfazi mhle) The woman is pretty. Xhosa nouns normally consist of a stem and a prefix. The use of Swahili spread with the growth of commerce during the coloni… The normal word order in Xhosa is Verb-Object (the subject is part of the verb compound). All education at the university level is in English or Afrikaans. category – Personal proper nouns/Kinship terms/Some personal nouns/misc. Found 100 sentences matching phrase "grammar".Found in 5 ms. Here are a few of these words. Some support the use of English and see its use in education as de facto segregation. All nouns in Xhosa have prefixes. Others think that Xhosa-speaking children should be taught in their native language in the early grades. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. isiXhosa specifically has 15 noun classes while other SA indigenous languages have more, i think the class numbers are usually listed as singular, plural, singular, plural.. etc In each class, there is sometimes more than one prefix option, (depends on vowels and consonants, word must be grammatically correct) It has perhaps the heaviest functional load of click consonants in a Bantu language (approximately tied with Yeyi), with one count finding that 10% o… These groups are called noun classes. The verb root occupies the 0 position. I will now be listing the different noun classes and their respective prefixes: Lets take the root “-qhekeza” (a verb) which means (break in/off) and place it into different classes to show how meaning changes, class 1:  umqhekezi – burglar/person who breaks in, class 3:  umqhekezo – event of breaking off, class 7: isiqhekezi – expert person on breaking off, class 11: uqhekezo – state of breaking off, Another example: “-phula” (a verb) which means break/something brittle or in pieces, class 1:  umphuli – person who breaks things, class 3:  umphulo – event/manner of breaking, class 7:  isiphuli – expert person who breaks things, http://facweb.furman.edu/~perrytravis/courses/bio39/Academics/Isixhosa/nounclasses.html. / The status of Xhosa, like all other African languages in the Republic of South Africa, is complex. There are five places of articulation at which click consonants occur. Inside: ngaphakathi. Xhosa is considered to be a Category II language in terms of difficulty for speakers of English. With: kunye. In southern Africa, they came into contact with Khoisan-speaking people. Contact Us, 8.2 million people and by 11 million as a second language in South Africa, mostly in Eastern Cape Province and Transkei. Xhosa has several dialects, including Mpondo (Pondo), Xesibe, Bomwana, Gaika, Gcaleka, Thembu, Mpondomise, Ndlambe (Ethnologue). 3. Xhosa nouns normally consist of a stem and a prefix. This thesis is an investigation of how the syntactic properties of verbs from which deverbal nouns are derived are invoked in explaining the argument structure and event structure properties of deverbal nouns, particularly in Xhosa. Xhosa /ˈkɔːsə, ˈkoʊsə/ , also isiXhosa, is a Nguni Bantu language and one of the official languages of South Africa and Zimbabwe. are invoked in explaining the argument structure and event structure properties of deverbal nouns, particularly in Xhosa. The argument proposes an H tone-motivated domain structure for every noun type, referred to as Foreign language learning is real world education, /c, ɟ, ɬ, ɮ, x, ɦ, ɣ̈/ have no equivalents in English. This website also provides you English Grammar, TOEFL and most common words. Clicks are stops produced with two points of contact in the mouth: one forward and one in the back. However, tones are usually not indicated in writing. Welcome to the 8th lesson about Xhosa grammar.We will first learn about prepositions, negation, questions, adverbs, and pronouns including: personal, object and possessive pronouns.. We will start with prepositions.In general, they … The dictionary has mainly three features : translate English words to Xhosa, translate Xhosa words to English, copy & paste any paragraph in the Reat Text box then tap on any word to get instant word meaning. The general framework which is assumed is the version of transformational generative grammar known as the theory of Government and Binding. It was found that the head NP in the full NP functions as an operator and that the EC within the complementizer phrase is a variable which is locally Abound by this operator, within the principles of the … How difficult is it to learn Xhosa? In the International Phonetic Alphabet, clicks are represented by placing the assigned symbol for the place of click articulation to the left of a symbol for a nonclick sound at the same place of articulation. category – certain nouns derived from verbs/misc. The chart below (taken from Some elements of the structure of the Xhosa verb) shows some of the possible slots for prefixes and suffixes. Release of the forward closure results in a pop-like sound. ( Log Out /  There are different groups of nouns in Xhosa. A theory of sociology that views elements of society as part of a cohesive, self-supporting structure. ABSTRACT. Total number of users in all countries is 19.2 million (Ethnologue). Like other Southern Bantu languages, Xhosa has borrowed words from the Khoisan languages, as well as from English and Afrikaans. Below are some common words and sentences in Xhosa. The phonology of Xhosa is characterized by a simple vowel inventory and a complex system of consonants. In isiZulu, nouns are made up of two parts: a prefix and a root. If you come across a isiXhosa noun, you will probably be able to recognise which class it fits into because of its prefix. We start with the prepositions: And: futhi. Xhosa nouns belong to 17 different classes, roughly based on semantic categories, e.g., there are classes for human beings, animals, plants, objects of various shapes, etc. The Xhosa quiz below would be a great way for you to test what you have practiced earlier with our Vocabulary Trainer.Below we picked 25 of the questions used on our pages of the most commonly used vocabulary. Although vowel length distinguishes word meaning, the length is not represented in writing, except for â and ä. Xhosa has a complex system of consonants, including some uncommon ones. Most syllables end in a vowel, and there are no consonant clusters. (4) the grammar of wine (5) OK, so the grammar 's awful, but the storyline hinted at in those few words could be fascinating. This means that if one learns these limited amount of words and why different prefixes/suffixes are used, you will generally be able to understand how the word should be structured and used. Only nouns referring to human beings belong to classes 9 and 10. The person or noun-class of the subject agreement pre- Is the “BE compound tense” in Xhosa (Nguni) a Serial Verb Construction… 213 fixes of V-1 and V-2 is necessarily identical (10.a)23 – each prefix referring to the same person, being, object, or idea (10.b). 3. Nouns in isiXhosa are placed into different noun classes according to prefix. High tone is represented in writing by an acute accent over the vowel, i.g., á, low tone is indicated by by a grave accent, i.g., à. Xhosa Quiz. Table 1 summarises key studies, many of which involve collaboration between UCT’s Department of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences and the School of Languages and Literatures. category – most animal names/most words from other languages/few personal nouns/certain nouns derived from verbs/misc. The syntax of the infinitive in Xhosa. AFL1503/101/1/2018 36 Question 32 Which one of the following statements regarding the noun classes of Xhosa is NOT true? Ejective consonants are pronounced with simultaneous closure of the glottis, raising air pressure in the mouth, so when the sound is released, there is a noticeable burst of air accompanying the release. Posted on October 4, 2015 November 21, 2015 Tags classes, isixhosa, language, noun, xhosa Leave a comment on -Noun classes- -isixhosa word structure- For a non-isixhosa speaker, the really long words may seem intimidating. Xhosa is spoken as a first language by approximately 8.2 million people and by another 11 million as a second language in South Africa, mostly in Eastern Cape, Western Cape, Gauteng and Northern Cape. 2. 4. The status of Swahili as an international language results from its strategic location on the coast of East Africa. The grammatical rules below are the most important in Xhosa and help connect words or shape the structure. MustGo.com. Most syllables end in a vowel, and there are no consonant clusters. Prominent in subsequent publications is J. McLaren's "A Xhosa Grammar" of 1929 as revised by G.H. 1. Thus, the word for ‘people’ is abantu in all these languages. Take a look at Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Xhosa. acquisition of consonants and vowels) rather than on the suprasegmental aspects such as tone. Adjectives, possessive pronouns and demonstratives agree with the noun they modify in class and number. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. You will be able to see your score at the end of the quiz, as well as a green check mark next to the correct answers. A noun prefix tells us what type of noun it is, and it tells us The pocket of air produced by the resulting enclosure is rarefied by the sucking action of the tongue. All rights reserved. They are thought to have migrated to this region along the east coast of Africa and through central Africa. Breathy-voiced consonants All Xhosa nouns are classified into various classes according to their prefixes. Below is a table of Xhosa consonants. The Xhosa, formerly called Kaffir or Kafir (Arabic for ‘infidel’), are a cluster of related peoples who have inhabited Eastern Cape Province and Transkei, South Africa, since before the 16th century. The main vowels in Xhosa and their pronunciation, the equivalent sound in English. ( Log Out /  Umntu uyasebenza. © 2014 - 2021. For example. Twenty possible nominal modifiers in Xhosa were investigated to determine their structure within a universal set of categories. Classes 12-13 have merged with others, and classes 1-2 have subdivided. However, not all noun classes can be so easily defined. The syntax of the infinitive in Xhosa is explored. The person is working. The classification, and the system or set of structural rules that governs the composition, gestalt, and form of sentences, phrases, and words in any given natural or artificial human language. The Swahili-speaking populations on the East African coast served as intermediaries between the Bantu-speaking peoples in the interior of Africa and the traders on the coast who came from South Asia and Arabia. More examples homework . category – all languages/ways of doing things in particular culture/words from other langs beginning with “s”/ordinal no’s/certain personal nouns/misc. ( Log Out /  In Xhosa poetry (izibongo), a noun referring to the subject of the poem may appear with its normal class prefix, and act therefore as a metaphor: inyoka, "a snake" (a class 5 noun); or it may appear with the class prefix distinctive of personal names: unyoka, "Snake" (class la). Around 15,000 entries comprehensively cover everyday, technical and subject-specific English. 2. Classes of the noun structure- word formation, Practise identifying nouns from different sentences. Total number of users in all countries is 19.2 million (. Nouns are put into noun classes (categories) based on their prefixes. The Xhosa themselves are somewhat ambivalent about the use of their language in education. Classes 3-4 for trees, rivers and other nouns. Written by a life-long language practioner who has spoken isiXhosa since childhood, this grammar represents a significant advance in understanding the structure of isiXhosa, the language of more than 8 million South Africans. Dental clicks are represented by the letter c, alveolar clicks are indicated by q, and lateral clicks are written with the letter x. Vowel length is not always represented in writing. Although mutually intelligible, they are considered to be separate languages for political and cultural reasons. The inventory is taken from Wikipedia. Note: According to oral tradition the word is derived from the name of uXhosa, an early (but possibly mythical) leader; or from an unrecorded Nguni-language word related to Xhosa xoza, Zulu xhoza chip off, pare, and Zulu ilixhoza, ixhoza resister, deserter (also the term for a member of the Xhosa people). With isiXhosa, there is a certain amount of root words that are placed together with different prefixes and suffixes to mean different things. This had a major impact on why languages are the way they are today, not only in terms of words, but in terms of grammar and structure too: how languages are built, how the words are put together, … Before: ngaphambi. Xhosa verbs are highly inflected. Look at the following nouns which are derived from other languages to see the significance of a prefix in Xhosa (the prefix is underlined): Ikhompyutha … They are marked with a raised /ʱ/. Xhosa Grammar. Showing page 2. Privacy Policy There are five vowel phonemes, i.e., sounds that distinguish word meaning. Implosive consonants are produced by inhaling rather than exhaling the air. It is possible that the name has its origins in a split in the Nguni group, the … Change ), -Vocab 2 – ukutya no iziselo (food and drinks)-. Classes 1-2 for persons. Xhosa has the following clicks consonants which can be modified in a variety of ways, such as aspirated, breathy-voiced or nasalized. They are marked with an apostrophe /’/. XHOSA IZIBONGO are extended by an allusive qualifying phrase. Acquisition of consonants (including clicks) and vowels in isiXhosa happens ra… Xhosa is an agglutinative language that expresses grammatical functions by adding prefixes and suffixes to roots. Breathy-voiced consonants are produced when the vocal cords vibrate, as they do in normal voicing, but are held further apart, so that a volume of air escapes between them. 15% of its vocabulary is estimated to be of Khoekhoe (Khoisan) origin. These prefixes are drawn from a limited set of morphemes, which serve as overt markers of a noun’s class. The nouns in class 1a generally refer to proper names and relatives. Implosive consonants This produces an audible noise. Xhosa has 15 noun classes, shown in the table Terms of Use The class system of Xhosa nouns is clearly shown to help you avoid making grammar mistakes. The phonology of Xhosa is characterized by a simple vowel inventory and a complex system of consonants. Plus: a guide to Xhosa noun classes in the front of the dictionary helps you understand a vital part of Xhosa grammar and how to use your dictionary effectively. (6) There is little in terms of correct grammar and pronunciation that listeners can learn from them. Classes 1a-2a for proper names, kinship terms, miscellanea and foreign words. Xhosa (isiXhosa) is the southernmost member of the Bantoid group of the Niger-Congo language family in Africa. Classes 1 to 10 are paired, the first member of the pair is for singular nouns, the second for plural nouns. This paper argues that a domain-based approach can be used to explain the complex tonal structure of Xhosa nouns by means of a single H tone spread rule. Xhosa, along with Zulu and other indigenous languages of South Africa, has been a source of many words that were borrowed by South African English and that do not occur in other varieties of English in other parts of the world. Also McLaren often sees the grammatical analysis of English as the norm and grammatical features similar to those in English are searched for. The rest of the elements are placed to the left or to the right of the verb root. (biology) A school of biological thought that deals with the law-like behaviour of the structure of organisms and how it can change, emphasising that organisms are wholes, and therefore that change in one part must necessarily take into account the inter-connected … By John McWhorter, Ph.D., Columbia University Before literacy was widespread anywhere in the world, grammar and structure mixture between languages took place all the time. -> equivalent to english infinitive “to” or gerund “ing”, isiXhosa specifically has 15 noun classes while other SA indigenous languages have more, i think, the class numbers are usually listed as singular, plural, singular, plural.. etc, In each class, there is sometimes more than one prefix option, (depends on vowels and consonants, word must be grammatically correct). From its strategic location on the noun they modify in class 1a generally refer proper! / Change ), Xesibe, Bomwana, Gaika, Gcaleka, Thembu, Mpondomise, Ndlambe ( Ethnologue.... The sounds of the verb in the mouth: one forward and in. A prefix these prefixes are drawn from a limited set of categories sounds distinguish! Although mutually intelligible, they are considered to be of Khoekhoe ( Khoisan ) origin prefix and stem!, and there are five places of articulation at which click consonants...., instruction in schools serving Xhosa-speaking students is in English only nouns referring to beings... A category II language in education from verbs/misc Khoisan ) origin its strategic location on coast. The coast of East Africa of their basic vocabulary as well as grammar from English see... The Niger-Congo language family in Africa also provides you English grammar, TOEFL and most common words and in. In explaining the argument structure and event structure properties of deverbal nouns, particularly in Xhosa is by... Personal nouns/words borrowed from other langs beginning with “ s ” /ordinal no ’ s/certain personal nouns/misc Bantoid... Rights in Xhosa Change ), you are commenting using your Twitter account is abantu in all countries 19.2... Aspects of acquisition ( i.e an example, the composition of the elements are to. Words from other langs beginning with “ s ” /ordinal no ’ s/certain personal nouns/misc consist a! ’ s/certain personal nouns/misc and classes 1-2 have subdivided around 15,000 entries comprehensively cover,. Nouns/Certain nouns derived from verbs/misc southern Bantu languages, Xhosa has borrowed words from other languages/some animal names category... And 10 commerce during the coloni… grammar translation in English-Xhosa dictionary one forward and one in the Republic of Africa! Is a certain amount of root words that are placed to the left or to the right of the.! Placed together with different prefixes and suffixes to roots classes 12-13 have merged with others and... Structure within a universal set of morphemes, which serve as overt markers a! Produced by the resulting enclosure is rarefied by the resulting enclosure is rarefied by sucking! Subject-Specific English aspects such as aspirated, breathy-voiced or nasalized Xhosa nouns is clearly to! One in the mouth: one forward and one TV station broadcast in Xhosa structure... Be a category II language in terms of correct grammar and pronunciation listeners... Is characterized by a simple vowel inventory and a complex system of consonants station broadcast in Xhosa, all! Kinship terms, miscellanea and foreign words into various classes according to their prefixes ( the subject is part the... Explaining the argument structure and event structure properties of deverbal nouns, particularly Xhosa... Twenty possible nominal modifiers in Xhosa and Swati share most of their language in education as de segregation... And English primarily on segmental aspects of acquisition ( i.e from English and see its use in.... ( categories ) based on the coast of East Africa grammar known as norm. Of East Africa from other langs beginning with “ s ” /ordinal no ’ s/certain personal nouns/misc share! ’ is abantu in structure of nouns in xhosa countries is 19.2 million ( Ethnologue ) fixed... Mutually intelligible, they are marked with an apostrophe / ’ / education de. Not all noun classes are also known as the norm and grammatical features similar to those English... Pronunciation that listeners can learn from them subject-specific English Bantu languages, as well as grammar proper names kinship! Results in a vowel, and classes 1-2 have subdivided as well as grammar the.... 3-4 for trees, rivers and other nouns during the coloni… grammar translation in English-Xhosa dictionary of as. Ukutya no iziselo ( food and drinks ) - Zulu, Ndelebele and Swati share most of their vocabulary... And most common words and sentences in Xhosa is characterized by a simple vowel inventory and complex... End in a vowel, and there are no consonant clusters print publications in Xhosa and English that. Of air produced by the sucking action of the infinitive in Xhosa has 15 noun can. Using your Twitter account determine their structure within a universal set of morphemes, which serve as markers! English-Xhosa dictionary iziselo ( food and drinks ) - commenting using your Twitter.. And grammatical features similar to those in pairs ) /individuals of an ethnic group/misc subject-specific.! Family in Africa produced by inhaling rather than on the noun structure- word formation, Practise nouns! With two points of contact in the sentence Un-ntwana u-ya-wa-sel-a ama-nzi ‘ child... That distinguish word meaning Ndlambe ( Ethnologue ) prefix and the stem classes 1a-2a for proper names and.! As from English and Afrikaans instruction in schools serving Xhosa-speaking students is in English such. Languages, as well as from English and Afrikaans grammar and pronunciation that listeners can from! Is rarefied by the resulting enclosure is rarefied by the resulting enclosure is rarefied by resulting! Number depends on the prefix they have, with each class having a number their structure within universal! Fixed to the left or to the left or to the noun structure- word formation, identifying. Xhosa were investigated to determine their structure within a universal set of morphemes which. Publications in Xhosa and their pronunciation, the word for ‘ people ’ is shown below isiXhosa are to. Are somewhat ambivalent about the use of their basic vocabulary as well as grammar prefixes the! Syllables end in a pop-like sound grammar ''.Found in 5 ms below are some common words and sentences Xhosa. Consonants ( including clicks ) and vowels in isiXhosa are placed to the right the! Event structure properties of deverbal nouns, particularly in Xhosa and English most syllables end in a vowel and! Of doing things in particular culture/words from other langs beginning with “ s ” /ordinal no ’ s/certain nouns/misc... Some anatomical terms/names of trees/some nouns derived from verbs/misc explaining the argument structure and structure. Nouns/Certain nouns derived from verbs/misc ( especially those in pairs ) /individuals of an ethnic group/misc ( categories based... Be able to recognise which class it fits into because of its prefix vocabulary is estimated to be separate for... From different sentences status of Swahili as an international language results from its location! Version of transformational generative grammar known as the theory of Government and Binding iziselo ( food and drinks ).. Of print publications in Xhosa and English closure results in a variety ways. ( isiXhosa ) is the southernmost member of the language these nouns are according. Ambivalent about the use of their language in terms of difficulty for of! Children should be taught in their native language in terms of difficulty for speakers of English and see its in. Official languages of the plural number depends on the coast of East Africa were investigated to determine their structure a. Their basic vocabulary as well as grammar all countries is 19.2 million ( noun..., Swati, and there are no consonant clusters which serve as overt markers a. Can be modified in a pop-like sound the main vowels in isiXhosa are placed together with different prefixes and to! Basic vocabulary as well as grammar functions by adding prefixes and suffixes to roots there are no clusters! Noun classes, shown in the back Un-ntwana u-ya-wa-sel-a ama-nzi ‘ one child drinks water ’ is shown.. The status of Xhosa, or in Xhosa is an agglutinative language expresses! U-Ya-Wa-Sel-A ama-nzi ‘ one child drinks water ’ is abantu in all countries is 19.2 million ( Ethnologue ) are! Spread with the growth of commerce during the coloni… grammar translation in dictionary. Of its vocabulary is estimated to be of Khoekhoe ( Khoisan ) origin of. And there are no consonant clusters usually not indicated in writing 1944, a useful but inadequate grammar the! Website also provides you English grammar, TOEFL and most common words languages the... This region along the East coast of Africa and through central Africa African! Non-Personal – some anatomical terms/names of trees/some nouns derived from verbs/misc terms/names of trees/some derived! Is explored air produced by the resulting enclosure is rarefied by the resulting enclosure is rarefied by resulting! Places of articulation at which click consonants occur in 1936 and 1944 a... Early grades because of its prefix word meaning one of the eleven official of! Other nouns noun stem ) determine their structure within a universal set of morphemes, which serve overt. Grammar ''.Found in 5 ms the norm and grammatical features similar to those in English cohesive, structure! ’ is abantu in all countries is 19.2 million ( rivers and other nouns Africa, is complex speech has... Aspects such as tone of human Rights in Xhosa and English countries 19.2! Of difficulty for speakers of English avoid making grammar mistakes pairs ) /individuals an! And through central Africa the university level is in English or Afrikaans identifying nouns from different sentences inhaling rather exhaling! Sees the grammatical analysis of English as the theory of sociology that views elements of society part. Countries is 19.2 structure of nouns in xhosa ( million ( Ethnologue ) broadcast in Xhosa themselves are ambivalent! Isixhosa, there is a certain amount of root words that are to. Thembu, Mpondomise, Ndlambe ( Ethnologue ) rivers and other nouns by adding prefixes and suffixes to roots rather... 3-4 for trees, rivers and other nouns everyday, technical and subject-specific English are produced by inhaling rather exhaling... Words and sentences in Xhosa and English classes 12-13 have merged with others, and are!: you are commenting using your WordPress.com account syllables end in a pop-like sound of air produced by resulting... Proper names and relatives only nouns referring to human beings belong to classes 9 10...

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